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Whiplash Research

This is a summary of recent research that the staff of the Calgary Whiplash Assessment & Diagnostic Laboratory have been involved in.

Publications

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy Reduces Psychological Features in Individuals with Chronic Whiplash. Pain Physician, 2014 May-Jun 17(3): 265-274. PMID: 24850108.

Schneider G, Jull G, Thomas K, Smith A, Emery C, Faris, P, Cook C, Frizzell B, Salo P. Derivation of a clinical decision guide in the diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2014 Mar 21. pii: S0003-9993(14)00208-1. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.02.026. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24662813.

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy Reduces Central Hyperexcitability and Improves Neck Movement in Individuals with Chronic Whiplash. Pain Med, 2014 Jan; 15(1): 128-141 doi: 10.1111/pme.12262. Epub 2013 Oct 18

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. A Comparison of Physical and Psychological Features of Responders and Non-Responders to Cervical Facet Blocks in Chronic Whiplash. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2013 Nov 4: 14(1):313 doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-14-313

Schneider GM, Jull G, Thomas K, Smith A, Emery C, Faris P, Schneider K, Salo P. Response to Commentary on Our Article Titled “Intrarater and Interrater Reliability of Select Clinical Tests in Patients Referred for Diagnostic Facet Joint Blocks in the Cervical Spine”. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2013; 94(8): 1638-1640.

Schneider GM, Jull G, Thomas K, Smith A, Emery C, Faris P, Schneider K, Salo P. Intrarater and Interrater Reliability of Select Clinical Tests in Patients Referred for Diagnostic Facet Joint Blocks in the Cervical Spine. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2013; 94(8):1628-1634. pii: S0003-9993(13)00140-8. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.02.015

Schneider G, Smith A, Schneider K, Westaway M, Hooper A, Frizzell B, Stratford P, Olson L. Minimizing the Source of Nociception and its Concurrent Effect on Central Hypersensitivity: A Clinical Trial in Chronic Whiplash Patients. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2010: 11:29 doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-29 (Highly Accessed)

Peer Reviewed Journal Abstracts

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Low Levels of Pain Catastrophization Predicts Success of Cervical Radiofrequency neurotomy in Individuals with Chronic Whiplash Symptoms. Pain Med, 2014; 15(8):1444.

Schneider G, Jull G, Thomas K, Smith A, Emery C, Faris, P, Cook C, Frizzell B, Salo P. When NOT to refer patients for diagnostic facet joint blocks: Derivation of a clinical decision rule in the diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain. Pain Med, 2014; 15(8):1443-4.

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Individuals with Chronic Whiplash Displaying Widespread Sensory Hypersensitivity Successfully Respond to Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy. Pain Res Manag, 2014: 19(3): May/Jun: 124.

Smith A, Scott W, Barton P. Biopsychosocial influences on chronic pain following whiplash injury: What do evidence and experience teach us about modulating the symptoms of chronic whiplash? Can the physical manifestations of WAD be modulated? Pain Res Manag, 2014: 19(3): May/Jun: 124.

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. The Presence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Does Not Influence Response to Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy. J Pain, 2014: 15(4): S73.

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Physical and Psychological Features of Chronic Whiplash Symptoms Are Modulated by Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy. JOSPT, 2014: 44(1): A155-156.

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy Reduces Psychological Distress and Pain Catastrophization, but Not Post-Traumatic Stress in Individuals with Chronic WAD. Pain Res Manag, 2013: 18(2): Mar/Apr: e13.

Smith A, Sterling M, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A. Cervical radiofrequency neurotomy improves physical impairments, including sensory hypersensitivity in persistent Whiplash Associated Disorder. JOSPT, 2013: 43(1): A125.

Smith A, Sterling M, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A. Radiofrequency Neurotomy Results in Immediate Improvements in Physical Impairments in Individuals With Chronic Whiplash Symptoms. JOSPT, 2012: 42(10): A53-4.

Smith A, Sterling M, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A. Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy Reduces Widespread Sensory Hypersensitivity in Persistent WAD. Pain Medicine, 2012: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01462.x

Schneider G, Smith A. Causation – “The Chicken or the Egg?”: Epidemiological Aspects of Whiplash Associated Disorders for Physiotherapists in the Medical Legal Setting. Physiotherapy Canada, 2010: 62 (Supplement 2010): 49-50. DOI:10.3138/ptc.62.supp

Smith A, Schneider G, Schneider K, Fonstad P. Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders: Is a cure possible after six months? The role of physiotherapy within a multidisciplinary, primary care centre. The Role of RadioFrequency Neurotomy in Chronic Whiplash and Associated Disorders Patient. Physiotherapy Canada, 2009: 61 (Supplement 1/June 2009): 48. doi: 10.3138/physio.61.abstracts.2009.5

Schneider G, Smith A, Hooper A, et al. Minimizing the Source of Nociception and its Concurrent Effect on Sensory Hypersensitivity: An exploratory study in chronic whiplash patients. Physiotherapy Canada, 2009: 61 (Supplement 1/June 2009): 48. doi: 10.3138/physio.61.abstracts.2009.5

Peer Reviewed - Other (Proceedings of Meetings)

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. A Time Course of Physical and Psychological Features Pre/post Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy in Individuals with Whiplash Injury – A Prospective Study. 15th World Congress on Pain. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oct 6-10, 2014. (Download in PDF)

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Individuals with Chronic Whiplash Symptoms Displaying Widespread Sensory Hypersensitivity Respond to Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy. 2014 CPA National Congress Meeting

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Cervical Facet Joint Nociception Modulates Psychophysical Measures of Central Nociceptive Processing and Psychological Manifestations of Chronic Whiplash Symptoms. 2014 American Pain Society Meeting

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Physical and Psychological Features of Chronic Whiplash Symptoms Are Modulated by Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy. 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association Meeting

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Cervical Facet Joint Nociception Modulates Physical Features of Chronic Whiplash Symptoms. 2013 CPA National Congress Meeting

Walton D, Smith A, Sterling M. The sLANSS as an Assessment and Prognostic Tool. A Psychometric Evaluation. Poster. Fourth International Congress on Neuropathic Pain, Toronto, Canada, May 23 - 26, 2013.

Jasper L, Smith A, Schneider G. The Association Between Sensory Hypersensitivity and Hypocapnia. Poster. IFOMPT 2012. Quebec City, Canada. Sep 30-Oct 5, 2012.

Bostick G, Schneider G, Smith A, Walton D, Jones D, Schneider K. Barriers and Facilitators to Physiotherapist Engagement in Clinical Research. Poster. IFOMPT 2012. Quebec City, Canada. Sep 30-Oct 5, 2012.

Smith A, Sterling M, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A. Reducing peripheral nociception in individuals with chronic whiplash, following cervical radiofrequency neurotomy, results in immediate reduction in sensory hypersensitivity and psychological distress. Poster. 14th World Congress on Pain. Milan, Italy. Aug 27-31, 2012.

Smith A, Sterling M, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A. Responders and Non-Responders of Cervical Facet Blocks for Chronic Whiplash Show Similar Physical and Psychological Features. 2011 CPA National Congress Meeting.

Walton D, Smith A, Sterling M. Properties of the SLANSS Tool for Assessment and Prognosis in Whiplash. 2011 CPA National Congress Meeting.

Smith A, Sterling M, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A. The Presence of Sensory Hypersensitivity in Responders to Cervical Facet Joint Double Block Procedure. Poster. 13th World Congress on Pain. Montreal, Canada. Aug 29-Sep 2, 2010.

Schneider K, Schneider G, Frizzell B, et al. Does a change in afferent input into the third occipital nerve produce nystagmus? Abstract. Reaching Forward 2008: Alberta Physiotherapy Conference, Edmonton, Alberta, Oct 26-28, 2008.

Schneider G, Smith A, Hooper A, et al. Minimizing the Source of Nociception and its Concurrent Effect on Sensory Hypersensitivity in Chronic Whiplash Patients. Reaching Forward 2008: Alberta Physiotherapy Conference. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Oct 26-28, 2008.

Schneider K, Schneider G, Frizzell B, et al. Does a change in afferent input into the third occipital nerve produce nystagmus? 2008 Canadian Physiotherapy Association Orthopaedic Symposium. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Sep 26-29, 2008.

Smith A, Sterling M, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A. Sensory Hypersensitivity in Whiplash Associated Disorder: The Development of a Human Model to Determine the Presence of Hypersensitivity Following Confirmed Facet Joint Injury. Poster. 12th World Congress on Pain. Glasgow, UK. Aug 17-22, 2008.

Schneider G, Smith A, Schneider K, Westaway M, Hooper A, Frizzell B, Stratford P, Olson L. Minimizing the Source of Nociception and its Concurrent Effect on Central Hypersensitivity: A Proposal for a Clinical Trial in Chronic Whiplash Patients. 2007 Alberta Physiotherapy Conference. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Oct 27-28, 2007.

Non Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

Schneider G, Smith A, Schneider K. The cervical facet joint as a source of pain in whiplash associated disorders: A review of the literature. Orthopaedic Division Review, 2006 (Nov/Dec): 11-18.

Submitted for Publication - Book Chapters

Smith A. Is a Tissue Lesion Important for Symptom Maintenance? Grieve’s Modern Manual Therapy: The Veterbral Column

Submitted for Publication - Journal Articles

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Low Pain Catastrophization and Disability Predicts Successful Outcome to Radiofrequency Neurotomy in Individuals with Chronic Whiplash (Submitted April 26, 2014)

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Modulation of Cervical Facet Joint Nociception and Pain Attenuates Physical and Psychological Features of Chronic Whiplash: A Prospective Study (Submitted April 6, 2014)

Presentations at Meetings - Invited

Smith A. My Back Hurts! Disc Herniation, or Internal Disc Disruption? AKA Do MRI Results Matter? 2013 Orthopaedic Division Symposium

Smith A. Measuring Pain – Is QST a Possibility? 2013 Canadian Pain Sciences Division National Teleconference

Smith A. Chronic Whiplash Symptoms: Can we reverse the ‘irreversible?’ 2013 Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Evidence-Based Solutions for Improving Cervical Spine Health and Function

Smith A. Neuropathic Pain & Central Sensitization – Diagnosis and Management for the Allied Health Care Practitioner. 2013 Alberta College of Occupational Therapists

Smith A. Gretton A. Whiplash (WAD) Injuries - Focus on Assessment, Treatment & Implications for Recovery. 2011: 56th Annual Scientific Assembly; Alberta College of Family Physicians

Smith A. Gretton A. Whiplash Injuries – Classification and Implications for Recovery. 2010: Alberta Physician Practice & Review

Smith A. The Cap: The Law and The Medicine. 2010 ACTLA Seminar

Smith A. Whiplash – Prognosis and Reporting. 2010: Alberta College of Occupational Therapists

Smith A, Schneider G. Whiplash – The Epidemic: Clinical Assessment. 2009: Calgary Chronic Pain Conference

Smith A, Fonstad P, Schneider G, Schneider K. 2009: CPA National Congress - Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders: Is a cure possible after six months? The role of physiotherapy within a multidisciplinary, primary care centre.

Smith A. The Role of RadioFrequency Neurotomy in Chronic Whiplash and Associated Disorders. Podium Presentation. 2009: CPA National Congress

Smith A. Whiplash Associated Disorders: 2009 Update. A pragmatic Approach to the Treatment of Whiplash-Associated Disorders. Vancouver, British Columbia, Jan 30, 2009. CSME.

Smith A. Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD) Patients & Sensory Hypersensitivity: Prognosis and Detection Utilising Physical and Psychological Laboratory Measures. 2008: Canadian Physiotherapy Association National Orthopaedic Symposium

Smith A. Real-Time Ultrasound Assessment of the Lumbopelvic Musculature. 2005: The Calgary Pain Conference

Smith A. Myths of Whiplash; Biomechanics and Biophysics of Motor Vehicle Collisions; Evidence-Based Physiotherapy for the Motor Vehicle Collision Client. 2005: Alberta Evidence-Based Whiplash Conference

Contributed - Peer Reviewed

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Low Levels of Pain Catastrophization Predicts Success of Cervical Radiofrequency neurotomy in Individuals with Chronic Whiplash Symptoms. International Spine Intervention Society. 22nd Annual Scientific Meeting. Orlando, Florida, USA. July 30-August 3, 2014.

Smith A, Schneider G, Jull G, Thomas K, Emery C, Faris, P, Cook C, Frizzell B, Salo P. When NOT to refer patients for diagnostic facet joint blocks: Derivation of a clinical decision rule in the diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain. International Spine Intervention Society. 22nd Annual Scientific Meeting. Orlando, Florida, USA. July 30-August 3, 2014.

Smith A. Individuals With Chronic Whiplash Symptoms Displaying Widespread Sensory Hypersensitivity Successfully Respond to Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy. 2014 Canadian Pain Society Meeting

Smith A, Scott W, Barton P. Biopsychosocial influences on chronic pain following whiplash injury: What do evidence and experience teach us about modulating the symptoms of chronic whiplash? 2014 Canadian Pain Society Meeting

Smith A, Schneider G, Schneider K. Persistent Whiplash Symptoms – Can Physiotherapy Assist? From Bio to Psycho to Sensori-Motor Modulation of Clinical Manifestations of WAD. 2014 CPA National Congress Meeting

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Cervical Facet Joint Nociception Modulates Physical and Psychological Features of Chronic Whiplash Symptoms. 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association Meeting

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Cervical Facet Joint Nociception Modulates Physical Features of Chronic Whiplash Symptoms. 2013 CPA National Congress Meeting

Smith A, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A, Sterling M. Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy Reduces Psychological Distress and Pain Catastrophization, but Not Post-Traumatic Stress in Individuals with Chronic WAD. 2013 Canadian Pain Society Meeting

Smith A, Schneider G, Elliott J. Facet to Fat: Pain Mechanisms and Manifestations of Persistent WAD: Focussed Symposium. Lecture Topic: Can the clinical manifestations of persistent WAD be modulated? IFOMPT 2012

Smith A. Cervical Radiofrequency Neurotomy Reduces Widespread Sensory Hypersensitivity in Persistent WAD. 2012: International Spine Intervention Society – 20th Annual Scientific Meeting

Smith A, Sterling M, Jull G, Schneider G, Frizzell B, Hooper A. Responders and Non-Responders of Cervical Facet Blocks for Chronic Whiplash Show Similar Physical and Psychological Features. 2011 CPA National Congress Meeting

Walton D, Smith A, Sterling M. Properties of the SLANSS Tool for Assessment and Prognosis in Whiplash. 2011 CPA National Congress Meeting

Schneider G, Smith A. Causation – “The Chicken or the Egg?”: Epidemiological Aspects of Whiplash Associated Disorders for Physiotherapists in the Medical Legal Setting. 2010 CPA National Congress Meeting

Smith A, Schneider G, Schneider K, Fonstad P. Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders: Is a cure possible after six months? The role of physiotherapy within a multidisciplinary, primary care centre. The Role of RadioFrequency Neurotomy in Chronic Whiplash and Associated Disorders Patient. 2009 CPA National Congress Meeting

Schneider G, Smith A, Hooper A, et al. Minimizing the Source of Nociception and its Concurrent Effect on Sensory Hypersensitivity: An exploratory study in chronic whiplash patients. Physiotherapy Canada. 2009 CPA National Congress Meeting

Invited Papers

2011: 56th Annual Scientific Assembly; Alberta College of Family Physicians: Whiplash (WAD) Injuries - Focus on Assessment, Treatment & Implications for Recovery
2010: Alberta Physician Practice & Review: Whiplash Injuries - Classification and Implications for Recovery
2010: ACTLA Seminar - The Cap: The Law and The Medicine. Podium Presentation
2009: Calgary Chronic Pain Conference: Whiplash - The Epidemic: Clinical Assessment
2009: CPA National Congress - Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders: Is a cure possible after six months? The role of physiotherapy within a multidisciplinary, primary care centre. Podium Presentation
2009: CPA National Congress - The Role of RadioFrequency Neurotomy in Chronic Whiplash and Associated Disorders. Podium Presentation
2009: CSME. Whiplash Associated Disorders: 2009 Update. A pragmatic Approach to the Treatment of Whiplash-Associated Disorders. Vancouver, British Columbia, Jan 30, 2009.
2008: Canadian Physiotherapy Association National Orthopaedic Symposium: Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD) Patients & Sensory Hypersensitivity: Prognosis and Detection Utilising Physical and Psychological Laboratory Measures
2005: The Calgary Pain Conference - Real-Time Ultrasound Assessment of the Lumbopelvic Musculature.
2005: Alberta Evidence-Based Whiplash Conference - Myths of Whiplash; Biomechanics and Biophysics of Motor Vehicle Collisions; Evidence-Based Physiotherapy for the Motor Vehicle Collision Client.

Current Research Projects

PhD Thesis

Whiplash Associated Disorders: A Prospective Study of the Time Course of Effects of Cervical Medial Branch RadioFrequency Neurotomies on Sensory, Motor and Psychological Features of the Disorder

Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation of the Medial Branch of the Dorsal Ramus for Treatment of Facet Joint Related Pain. Frizzell B, Patel C, Hooper A, Park R, Bell K, Hu W, Smith A, Sandwell S.

Clinical Examination in Determining Facet Joint Mediated Pain in the Cervical Spine: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study. Schneider G, Smith A, Schneider K, Westaway M, Stratford P, Hooper A, Frizzell B.

Quantitative Sensory Test Results in Thoracic Syrinx Clients following High Speed Motor Vehicle Collisions. Smith A, Hooper A.

Altered Breathing Chemistry in Chronic Whiplash and Associated Disorder Patients Presenting with Sensory Hypersensitivity. Smith A, Jasper L, Schneider G

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